Continuing from the last week, let's study about "Operator setting".

In the article of "Episode 587: Designation in Uneven Hierarchy, part 1", I introduced you a method of two-step approval which is to obtain an approval from "superior" then obtain from the "superior's superior". It is a form of approval flow that is common even for other than decision-making. This time, I will introduce a different way of writing about the previous Workflow diagram.

In the following Workflow diagram, the second Swimlane is set to "superior of the applicant" (relative designation), instead of "manager" (absolute designation by position).
By setting like this, "2. Approval/Decision" task will be assigned to the manager of the organization to which the applicant belongs. That is, if a "member" among "two directors, ten managers, and fifty members" makes a request then a "manager" approves on it, and if "manager" makes, "director" approves it.

[Approval flow (relative representation)]



Let's study about "Operator setting" from popular articles of the past.
To specify a "superior" is comparably difficult among settings of a Workflow since there are several ways to do and also it depends on the organization structure. As for the specific setting method, though it depends on the specifications of the system you are using, it is better to know various ways of thinking at first.

One President, two (executive) Directors, four managers, and twelve employees.
Suppose that 4 of the "12 employees" are assigned to "directly under the Directors". More specifically,

  • 2 people are directly assigned respectively to the Departments where each of two directors supervises.
  • 2 people are assigned respectively to the Units where each of 4 managers supervises.

Every "Units" are belonging to either of the "Departments", of course. Specifically, It is a case of where the sales manager himself directly directs five sales staff members besides Units under the umbrella of the sales department. And while there are many Units under the affiliation of the manufacturing department, the manufacturing department manager himself is directly supervising five people as quality control staff.


The characteristic of this organizational structure is that there is "variation in depth". It is a common story.

Now, in the case of such "organization having variations in depth", what kind of business flow diagram should be to express the path of escalation in the approval flow? Let's consider how to write according to international standard notation BPMN. The point where to be controversial is how to draw an in-house rule that is "In principle, after the manager approval, the director will make a decision". That is, those five people in each department in this organization have no Manager.


[Approval flow (absolute representation 1)]


Continuing from last week, I will introduce the past articles of "Workflow Sample" concerning the method of Workflow definition using BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation).

BPMN stands for "Model" and "Notation". The Workflow definition written in BPMN can be run as Workflow system on a BPM system. Would you like to learn BPMN and try systemizing your work?

For information on how to write BPMN, please also refer to BPMN Introduction.


5) Eternal Looping

In a Workflow definition, you can express various loop structures. However, there are some loop structures that cause errors, so be careful. However, there are some loop structures that cause errors, so please be aware of them.

[BPMN sample-Error loop]



6) Never Use Your Own Rules When Designing Workflow Diagrams

Learn how to write about "interrupting" of processing when multiple people are processing at the same time in parallel. In BPMN, it is defined as "Terminate End Event".

[BPMN sample-Single Terminate]


7) Same Results, Different Starts

A Workflow can be started by various kinds of triggers. Not only a person starts one but also methods to automatically start with a timer, etc. is assumed.

[BPMN sample-Varied Multiple Start]



Basics of BPMN, how to model in Questetra


(Japanese Entry (和文記事))

In this blog, "Workflow Sample", we introduce you various Workflow definitions of businesses. Since a Workflow definition is drawn using BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation), so it is not only the flow of the business to comprehensible at a glance but also sharing the contents of the business to be easy.

We are going into Golden Week, so I will re-introduce the articles of the past concerning "how to draw BPMN" for the next two weeks. I hope you take those as an opportunity to learn about BPMN which is a notation system for Workflow diagram and how to draw with them.

1) Split Conditions are a Basic Concept in BPMN


A lesson for how to "Split" a flow of business. Among three types of splitting, "AND split (parallel split)" which goes to "all" and "XOR split (exclusive split)" which goes to "one of them" are explained.

[BPMN sample-XOR split]


[BPMN sample-AND split]


Related Article


2) BPMN Splits for flexible flow conditions


Among three types of splitting, "OR split (inclusive split)" which flows to "some" that satisfy a condition is explained.

[BPMN sample-OR split]


Related Article


3) Automatically Sending Template Emails in the Middle of a Workflow


A lesson about on of the "Events" in BPMN. There are 14 types of Events that are available in"Questetra BPM Suite", as of May 2018.

[BPMN sample-Message Throwing Never-Ending]

Related Article


4) How to Design Primary Workflows With Many Baby Workflows


A lesson for how to connect Processes using "Throwing Message Intermediate Event (HTTP)".

[BPMN sample-Generate Twins]


Related Article




Basics of BPMN, how to model in Questetra


(Japanese Entry (和文記事))